Body cells that can not use ketone bodies

02/19/2017 19:38:47 PM

There are two kinds of tissue cells that can not use ketone bodies in a ketogenic diet or even during starvation. These are the liver cells, called hepatocytes, and the red blood cells, which do not have mitochondria. Even though hepatocytes ...

What is ROS in Biology?

02/13/2017 09:20:35 AM

In biology ROS is the acronym for Reactive Oxygen Species, which are chemically reactive molecules that have atoms of oxygens. Superoxyde radicals, peroxides, and hydroxyl radicals are example of reactive oxygen species, which are responsible ...

Ketogenic Diet vs Memory and Intelligence

02/11/2017 17:29:07 PM

It has been scientifically proven by Dr Jan Venter, MD, and Jong Rho, MD, that a ketogenic diet not only prevents seizures in patients with epilepsy, but it also enhances short and long term memory and intelligence. Ketone bodies are by far ...

Glucose vs Fatty Acids, which one makes you fat?

10/06/2016 14:07:00 PM

Fatty acids, which derive from the saturated fat that we eat, are never stored as adipose tissue in the body. Thus, they do not make you fat; glucose does. Fatty acids are first broken down into ketone bodies (aceto-acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, ...

How Saturated Fat is Broken Down in the Body

09/30/2016 12:30:00 PM

The saturated fat that we eat is the most efficient food and form of energy for the human body. It is broken down by lipase (pancreatic enzyme) into glycerol and fatty acids, which is stored in the liver. This organ further breaks down fatty ...

Stress relief treatment

04/15/2016 21:32:00 PM

Aside from working out and spending time in quiet places in contact with nature, floating naked in a bath full of Epsom salt is a good therapy for stress relief.

Stellate Ganglion

04/06/2016 14:13:00 PM

The stellate ganglion is a sympathetic nerve ganglion located in the base of the neck, right behind the vertebral artery. Being part of the sympathetic ganglionic chain, it originates through the merging of the inferior cervical ganglion and ...

Blue Origin Reusable Rocket Makes Vertical Landing

04/04/2016 21:12:00 PM

The Blue Origin's reusable rocket made its third successful vertical landing. This rocket uses a BE-3 liquid-pump-fed engine. Compared to the Atlas and Saturn's expendable boosters, the new rocket of Blue Origin is reusable and will make flying ...

Thermite Welding To Join Rails

03/15/2016 10:34:00 AM

The use of thermite welding to join track rails in the railroad industry (video). The rail ends must be pre-heated first before the welding process.

Mesenteric ganglion

03/11/2016 09:24:00 AM

The mesenteric ganglia are two groups of nerve cells that belong to the chain of prevertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, innervating the gastrointestinal organs. The human being has two mesenteric ganglia:1) The superior mesenteric ...

Sympathetic Cardiac Nerves (Origin)

03/04/2016 11:54:00 AM

The sympathetic cardiac nerves supply the heart with sympathetic fibers. It means that these nerves increase the heart rate, accelerating the ventricular contraction. There three pairs: 1) the superior cardiac nerve, which arises from the superior ...

NASA Curiosity Mars Rover (Video)

02/09/2016 11:15:00 AM

On February 8, NASA released its latest video of planet Mars, with 360º images, shot from Curiosity rover camera.To read more about Mars, click on the link below ...

Diaphragm Innervation

12/28/2015 09:25:00 AM

The diaphragm, which is a muscular membrane that separates the abdominal from the thoracic cavities, is innervated by the phrenic nerve, which arises from the cervical segment of the spinal cord, from C3 to C5, with C4 contributing with about ...

Erection Physiology

12/19/2015 17:31:00 PM

How does erection work? The physiological process of erection

Pluripotent Stem Cells

11/26/2015 16:24:00 PM

Pluripotent stem cells are human embryonic stem cells, which have the capacity to transform into any type of tissue cells in the body; that is to say, they have multiple potential. Today, the science of medicine employs stem cells to replace ...

Costocervical Trunk

11/20/2015 15:22:00 PM

The costocervical trunk is a paired, oxygen-rich blood vessel located in the shoulder, one in the left side, the other in the right side. It arises from the upper surface of the subclavian artery and has a short course, dividing into two important ...

Celiac Ganglion

11/19/2015 15:11:00 PM

The celiac ganglion is a cluster of neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, located on the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, at the base of the celiac arterial trunk. It innervates the stomach, pancreas, liver, and part of the small ...

Highest Intercostal Artery

11/17/2015 12:10:00 PM

The highest intercostal artery, also called supreme intercostal artery, is an important blood vessel of the trunk. It is one of the two arterial branches into which the costocervical trunk divides. This latter arterial trunk arises in turn from ...

Deep Cervical Artery

11/05/2015 13:22:00 PM

The deep cervical artery is an oxygen-rich blood vessel that runs up the neck, parallel to the cervical vertebrea. It arises from the costocervical trunk, which, in turn, originates from the subclavian artery. At the end of its almost straight ...

Chemical Changes in Muscle during Contraction

10/31/2015 15:59:00 PM

The origin, or precursor, of lactic acid is glucose (a monosaccaride sugar). During contraction, there are chemical changes in striated muscles in which glucose breaks down into two components: phosphoric acid on one side, and lactic acid on ...

Muscular Tone

10/21/2015 16:15:00 PM

The muscular tone is the condition of permanent semicontraction (slight constraction) which the muscle always has during the resting state. The muscular tone can be observed in a healthy person (without neurological problems) both in the striated ...

Striated Muscle Chemical Composition

10/21/2015 14:12:00 PM

The striated muscle of mammals have a similar chemical composition to the one found in other body tissues. So, it is composed of 70 % of water and 30 % of solid matter. However, the striated muscle's solid matter consists in turn of proteins ...

Ascending Cervical Artery

10/16/2015 14:58:00 PM

The ascending cervical artery is a blood vessel that arises from the inferior thyroid artery, which, in turn, originates from thyrocervical trunk. It has an ascending course as it runs up along the anterior scalene muscle. It anastomoses with ...

Ansa Cervicalis

10/14/2015 14:04:00 PM

The ansa cervicalis, also called ansa hipoglossi, is a U-shaped, curved stretch of nerve, which is part of the cervical plexus. It is formed by myelinated nerve fibers coming from spinal roots C1, C2, and C3. From the loop of the ansa cervicalis, ...

Lactic Acid

10/10/2015 17:43:00 PM

Lactic acid is a colorless, water-soluble liquid, which is generated in the skeletal muscles as the result of glycolysis, which is in turn the breakdown of glucose into both pyruvic and lactic acid. Thus, it is the byproduct of anaerobic glucose ...

Difference Between Rocket Motors and Internal Combustion Engines

10/10/2015 17:01:00 PM

Although both the rocket motor and the internal combustion engine depend on the burning fuel, called combustion, to produce the driving force, the way the combustion hot gases are harnessed to propel the vehicle forward is completely different. ...

Blood Vessels innervation

10/08/2015 16:38:00 PM

The innervation of blood vessels, specially arteries and arterioles, is effectuated by sympathetic, postglanglionic, efferent fibers as well as by preganglionic efferent fibers from the ganglia that make up the sympathetic ganglionic chain and ...

What is action and what is reaction in a rocket motor?

10/08/2015 14:24:00 PM

The action is the downward movement of the hot gases, while the reaction is the upward movement of the rocket, which is propelled by this physics principle. The hot gases are generated inside the combustion chamber when the fuel burns; thus, ...

Cervical Vertebrae

10/07/2015 17:23:00 PM

The cervical vertebrae are the seven uppermost bone pieces of the vertebral column, which are located immediately below the skull, with each one of them being separated from the other by a disc of cartilage. They are: C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, ...

Parotid Gland

10/07/2015 16:04:00 PM

The parotid gland is a pair of salivary glands, located on each side of the face, right below and in front of the external ear. Being the largest of the three pairs of salivary glands, it secretes seromoucus saliva into the mouth through the ...

Callosomarginal Artery

09/27/2015 11:04:00 AM

The callosomarginal artery is a blood vessel in the brain that emerges from the anterior cerebral artery along with the pericallosal branch, making a fork with the latter. From its point of origin, it climbs up, but then it turns backwards to ...

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

09/26/2015 11:59:00 AM

Formerly called causalgia, the reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a medical condition in which the patient suffers from "burning" pain, swelling, and vasomotor dysfunction in one of his arms. The exact cause of the RSD is unknown, but it ...

Rolandic Artery

09/16/2015 15:36:00 PM

The rolandic artery emerges from the terminal section of the superior bifurcation branch of middle cerebral artery, running up along the central sulcus (fissure of Rolando). Along its course, it gives off several smaller branches, supplying ...

Heart Efferent Nerves

09/13/2015 17:42:00 PM

The human heart receives efferent nervous fibers from two sources; 1) the parasympathetic fibers reach the heart from the medulla oblongata, through the vagus nerve (CN X), and 2) the sympathetic nerve fibers which go to the cardiac muscles ...

Temporary Arteries

09/12/2015 16:34:00 PM

The temporary arteries are oxygen-rich blood vessels that supplies the temporal lobe of each cerebral hemisphere. Arising from the middle cerebral artery, they are usually three branches in most individuals: the anterior, middle, and posterior ...

Lenticulostriate Stroke

09/01/2015 20:45:00 PM

A lenticulostriate stroke is a cerebral hemorrhage in the base of the brain, affecting the basal ganglia. This type of stroke occurs when one or two of the lenticulostriate arteries burst due to high blood pressure and/or an aneurism in one ...

Anterior Descending Branch of Left Coronary Artery

07/15/2015 17:20:00 PM

The anterior descending branch of left coronary artery is one of the two main branches into which the left coronary artery of the heart divides, the other being the circumflex artery. At first, it has a brief winding course around the base of ...

Longest River in the World

07/04/2015 18:24:00 PM

The longest river in the world is the Nile. Originating from Luvyironza River, in Burundi, Tanzania, Central Africa, it is 6,695 km (4,160 miles) long, flowing northwards through Egypt into the Mediterrenean Sea. Its most important tributary ...

What influence heart rate?

07/04/2015 16:04:00 PM

Basically, the heart rate, or cardiac frequency, depends on the inhibitory activity of the vagus nerve (CN X), that is to say on its variable tone. If this parasympathetic nerve gets completely paralyzed (due to atropine, for example), the heart ...

Brain Frontal Section

07/04/2015 14:02:00 PM

There are two frontal or coronal sections of the human brain; the first one exhibits the cortex, with its deep folds, and the cerebrum's inner structures, like the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus) and the corpus callosum; ...

Internal Capsule

07/04/2015 12:49:00 PM

The internal capsule is a compact band of myalinated axons located in the center of the brain, separating the caudate nucleus from the lentiform nucleus (putamen and globus pallidus), which are two basal ganglia structures.FunctionThe internal ...

Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery

06/28/2015 18:47:00 PM

The lateral circumflex femoral artery is an oxygen-rich blood vessel which originates from the deep femoral artery, being its upper side branch. It has a short course as it runs sideways through the division of the femoral nerve to divide into ...

Difference between Mass and Weight

06/28/2015 17:10:00 PM

On the surface of the Earth mass and weight

Posterior intercostal artery

06/28/2015 13:57:00 PM

The posterior intercostal artery is one of several arterial branches that come off the posterior side of the thoracic aorta, except for the two uppermost ones, which originate from the supreme intercostal artery. It supplies the ribs and intercostal ...

Septomarginal tract

06/28/2015 11:08:00 AM

The septomarginal fasciculus, or tract, is an oval-shaped bundle of myelinated axonic fibers that is found deep in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord. It is surrounded by the gracile and the cuneate fasciculi and the spinal cord grey matter. ...

Spinal Cord Medial Lemniscus Pathway

06/27/2015 14:26:00 PM

The medial lemniscus


06/25/2015 14:51:00 PM

The hemochromatosis is a hereditary disease, which is characterized by the abnormal deposit of a great quantity of iron in all the body organs, mainly in the form of hemosiderin (an iron-containing protein). Along with the iron build-up, there ...

Sciatic Nerve

06/25/2015 12:49:00 PM

The sciatic nerve is composed of both sensory and motor fibers, wrapped in a common connective tissue sheath. It originates from the sacral plexus and exits the pelvis through the infrapiriform foramen. It runs down beyond the gluteus maximus ...

Human Mandible (anterolateral and left posterior view)

06/21/2015 17:37:00 PM

The two images below shows the anterolateral and left posterior views of an adult human mandible. It has tow main parts: the body, which constitutes its base, and the ramus, which is the height of the mandible, inserting into the upper maxi ...

Red Nucleus

06/21/2015 15:15:00 PM

The red nucleus is a massive cluster of neurons that form a neurological structure in the dorsal portion of the midbrain. It has an elongated form and a reddish gray hue. The red nucleus functions like a relay station, receiving afferent axonal ...

Left Marginal Artery

06/20/2015 17:48:00 PM

The left marginal artery, also known as obtuse marginal artery, arises from the left circumflex branch of the heart left coronary artery. It runs down almost vertically along the left margin of the left ventricle towards the apex of the heart. ...


06/20/2015 16:34:00 PM

The claustrum is a vertical layer of neurons located in each cerebral hemisphere. Surrounded by white matter, it is an elongated structure of grey matter, lying between the lentiform nucleus and the insular cortex. Almost all cerebral cortical ...

Common Sites of Hemorrhagic Stroke

06/20/2015 15:25:00 PM

The most common sites of hemorrhagic stroke are the regions of the brain supplied by the middle cerebral artery and its branches. The primary motor cortex of the frontal lobe (Brodmann's area 4) is affected when the rupture occurs in the pr ...

Longest River in Europe

06/20/2015 12:28:00 PM

The longest river in Europe is the Volga River,

Dinosaurs Extinction (the Truth)

06/14/2015 22:54:00 PM

The extinction of all dinosaurs was not caused by a falling asteroid. This affirmation is solidly based on one single fact; the fossil remains of different species of dinosaurs have not been found in one single geological stratum, but in different ...

Musculocutaneous Nerve

06/14/2015 17:19:00 PM

The musculocutaneous nerve is a branch that comes off the brachial plexus lateral cord. It is composed of both motor and sensory fibers that originate from the C5, C6, and C7. As it runs deeply down the arm, the musculocutaneous nerve gives ...

Occipital Artery

06/14/2015 16:46:00 PM

The occipital artery is a blood vessel which originates from the external carotid artery, in the superior lateral side of the neck, just below the lower maxilar. It runs up backward, with a tortous course, to end up at the back of the head, ...

Sternocleidomastoid Muscle

06/14/2015 15:03:00 PM

The sternocleidomastoid muscle is a long, paired muscle of the neck. Anchored by two heads at the sternon and clavicle bones, it runs up the front of the neck and then obliquely backward to insert by a tendon in the mastoid process of the temporal ...

Deglutation Reflex

06/14/2015 14:18:00 PM

The deglutition or swallowing reflex is centered in the medulla oblongata and pons, acting through the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII), which innervates three of the four muscles involved in deglutition (geniohyoid, genioglossus, hyoglossus), and ...

Zero-Gravity Effects on Human Body

06/06/2015 17:01:00 PM

Weightlessness, or zero-gravity, has negative effects on the human body and its tissues. One of its main effect is bone resorption, which is the removal of osseous tissue by osteoclasts (bone cells) due to little muscle contractions since our ...

How do bats navigate?

06/06/2015 14:44:00 PM

Bats get around by a process known as echolocation, which is a process that determines the spatial position of objects by emitting sound waves and measuring the time it takes for an echo to return to the sender. Thus, a bat emits a high-pitched ...

Sural Artery

06/06/2015 14:13:00 PM

The sural arteries are a pair of blood vessels which originate from the popliteal artery in the back of the knee. One is the medial and the other the lateral sural arteries. They supply the soleus, gastrocnemeus, and plantaris muscles with ...

Middle Genicular Artery

06/06/2015 13:51:00 PM

The middle genicular artery is an oxygen-rich blood vessel which branches off from the anterior side of the popliteal artery in the back of the knee. It supplies ligaments of the knee joint.

Reil's Ribbon

06/06/2015 10:25:00 AM

The Reil's ribbon, alson known as medial lemniscus, is a bundle of myelinated nerve fibers located in the medulla oblongata. Arising from the cuneate and gracile nuclei, they run up and decussate (cross) before going up into the pons where they ...

Suprascapular Nerve

05/31/2015 13:44:00 PM

The suprascapular nerve is a nerve located in the shoulder, coming off from the brachial plexus trunk. However, the fibers that compose the suprascapular nerve originate from the fifth and sixth cervical spinal roots. It descends down obliquely, ...

Leg Arteries

05/31/2015 09:58:00 AM

The main artery that supplies the lower limb (thigh and leg) is the common femoral artery, which arises from the external iliac artery. In the upper part of the thigh, it gives off an important branch; the deep femoral artery. Then, it runs ...

Gracile nucleus

05/30/2015 18:01:00 PM

Also known as Goll's nucleus, the gracile nucleus is a massive cluster of nerve cells situated in the posterior or dorsal part of the medulla oblongata. It is grey in color and is surrounded by white matter. The gracile nucleus receives sensitive ...

Most Complete Food

05/30/2015 17:12:00 PM

The most complete food is red meat, which is the richest source of protein, containing more than twenty amino acids, nine of which are essential for growth and maintenance of body tissue, such as arginine, aspartic acid, and alanine. But red ...

Kwashiorkor (Malnutrition)

05/30/2015 13:23:00 PM

Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency which causes severe malnutrition. Important sources of proteins are red meat, fish, chicken, egg, lentils, and beans. Proteins are important for growth and maintenance of body tissues and the parenchymal ...

Parvocellular Neurosecretory Cells

05/27/2015 20:39:00 PM

The parvocellular cells are neurosecretory nerve cells found in the hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus. Their axons runs into the median eminence, which is a capillary-rich lower part of the infundibulum, connecting the hypothalamus with the ...

Subthalamic nucleus

05/24/2015 20:53:00 PM

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a cluster of nerve cell bodies located at the base of the brain, with the aspect of a biconvex mass of grey matter surrounded by bundles of myelinated axonal fibers, which constitute the white matter. Being part ...

Arm Nerves

05/23/2015 14:18:00 PM

There are seven main nerves that innervate the muscles and skin of the human arm. They all arise from the brachial plexus.1) Median nerve. It is formed by the medial and lateral roots that arise from the medial and lateral cords of terminal ...


05/23/2015 13:03:00 PM

Marasmus is a type of malnutrition which is caused by carbohydrates deficiency, which means it occurs when there is not enough intake of carbohydrates-containing food. Carbohydrates are commonly referred to as calories, which are vital for cell ...

How a Car Headlight Works

05/23/2015 10:57:00 AM

Although a car headlight has only one bulb, it can produce two light beams: the high beam and the low beam. This is possible because the headlight bulb has two electric filaments. In the high beam, the light shines sideways in all directions ...

Anterior Tibial Veins

05/03/2015 16:34:00 PM

The anterior tibial veins are the two veins of the leg that arise from the dorsal pedis veins. They drain venous blood up into the popliteal vein.

Earthquake in Nepal 2015 (video)

04/30/2015 19:40:00 PM

A video of earthquake in Nepal. The images were captured alive. It measured 7.9º magnitude on the Richter scale and killed more than 9,000 people.

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

04/22/2015 10:56:00 AM

The hemolytic uremic syndrome is a medical condition marked by acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and platelet deficiency. It usually occurs in children with sudden gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment: dyalisis, transfusion, ...

Chorda Tympani Nerve

01/02/2015 09:34:00 AM

The chorda tympani is an afferent nerve, which arises as a branch of the facial nerve (CN VII). It runs through the tympanic cavity of the ear to join the mandibular nerve. It carries taste sensation from the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue. The ...

Lenticular nucleus

12/15/2014 20:03:00 PM

The lenticular nucleus, also called lentiform nucleus, is a relatively large body of grey matter within the white matter of the human brain. It is composed of the putamen and the globus pallidus, which are two masses of nerve cell bodies. A ...

Car Battery of the Future

12/03/2014 20:45:00 PM

At the research center of the German technical university of Baden Württemberg (Karlsruhe Institut für Technologie: KIT), Maximilian Fichtner and Horst Hahn have developed a new powerful and everlasting battery, which will probably be used ...

Breathing Centers

12/02/2014 13:22:00 PM

The breathing centers are grey nuclei made up of nerve cell bodies that are found in the medulla oblongata. These nuclei are parts of the reticular formation of the brainstem (medulla, pons, midbrain). Through the phrenic nerve and the thoracic ...


12/01/2014 11:39:00 AM

Gastroparesis is an abnormally delayed peristaltic movement of the stomach. As a result, it takes this organ a much longer period of time to emptying its food contents into the small intestine. The symptoms of gastroparesis are nausea, bloating, ...

Phrenic Nerve

11/30/2014 16:40:00 PM

The phrenic nerve is an important efferent nerve which innervates the diaphragm, taking part in the medulla oblongata's automatic breathing functions. It originates at the third, fourth, and fifth spinal cord cervical roots of the cervical plexus. ...

Choroid Plexus

11/20/2014 13:10:00 PM

The choroid plexus are highly vascularized, folding membranes located in the ventricles of the base of the brain. Most of them are found in the lateral ventricles, while a 30% of them are situated in the third and fourth ventricles, sticking ...

Muscles Involved in swallowing

10/08/2014 15:36:00 PM

The muscles involved in swallowing or deglutition are three muscles located at the base of the tongue, in the mandible, and two of them are attached to the hyoid bone in the upper neck, with two of them being part of the tongue. They are: the ...

Pick Disease

10/08/2014 13:11:00 PM

Pick's disease is a neurodegenerative syndrome that affects the central nervous system, specially, the brain's frontal and temporal lobes. It is characterized by motor and sensorial aphasia (loss of the verbal capacity to pronounce words), memory ...

Great White Shark Attacks

10/07/2014 20:46:00 PM

Great white shark attacks in the Southern Pacific, east of Easter Island (video). This murderous shark can be found in the coastal waters of all major oceans. Their behavior is unpredictable.

Ribbon Worms

10/03/2014 09:31:00 AM

Ribbon worms belong to the phylum Nemertinea. They are worms with unsegmented bodies, measuring only a few inches long. They have long extensible proboscises for capturing food. The proboscis lies above the mouth and can be extended to a distance ...


10/02/2014 21:26:00 PM

Schistosomes are flukeworms that belong to the genus Schistosoma and the class Trematoda. Their life cycle is simple and very insidious (gradual and stealthy). The parasite eggs excreted in animal and human urine and feces contaminates freshwater ...

Olivary bodies

10/01/2014 22:30:00 PM

The olivary bodies are a pair of oval bulbs, situated on the anterior surface of the medulla oblongata, lying on both sides of the anterior lateral sulcus and lateral to the upper part of the pyramid of this organ. Being made up of nerve cell ...

Coenzyme Q10

09/26/2014 18:21:00 PM

The coenzyme Q10, or ubiquinone, is a fat-soluble nutrient, which is found in the cell mitochondria as an electron carrier in cellular respiration. Within this organelle, the coenzyme Q10 participates in reactions which supply energy to the ...

Bruns Frontal Ataxia

09/26/2014 13:19:00 PM

Bruns' frontal ataxia is a rare neurological disease, which is distinguished by alterations in the equilibrium and gait, with a tendency to retropulsion (to walk backwards) due to lesions in the frontal lobes of the brain. It is caused by c ...


09/24/2014 10:51:00 AM

Hepatocytes are the parenchymal cells that make up the liver. Histologically, they are epithelial cells which constitute the main tissue of this organ, whose functions are the transformation of carbohydrates, removal of ammonia, billirubin and ...

Flukes (Class Trematoda)

09/22/2014 18:32:00 PM

Flukeworms are mainly internal parasites of higher animals. Belonging to the Trematoda Class of Platyhelmithes, they range in length form a few millimeter to several centimeters. To adapt to a parasitic life, they have lost the soft, ciliated ...


09/20/2014 19:41:00 PM

Exophthalmia is when the eyeball bulges out and the eyelids can not be fully closed. It is the result of a disease or endocrinological abnormality. Diferent types of tumors, inflammatory processes, and hyperthyroidism can cause exophthalmia ...

Parasite and Host

09/17/2014 21:23:00 PM

A parasitic animal lives symbiotically in or on its host for at least part of its life cycle and benefits at the expense of the host. Parasites feed repeatedly on the bodies of their hosts but do not destroy them as a predator would its prey. ...

Parenchymal Cells

09/10/2014 12:56:00 PM

The parenchymal cells are the body cells that make up the main functional tissue of an organ or system, constituting between 70 to 90% of its mass. And these functional tissue composed by parenchymal cells are called parenchyma, which is the ...


09/08/2014 22:29:00 PM

Trimethadione is drug indicated for the control of petit mal seizures that are refractory to other drugs. Petit mal is form of epilepsy. Chemically, trimethadione is designated as 3,5,5-trimethyloxazolidine 2,4-dione. This anticonvulsant is ...

Planarians-Class Turbellaria

09/04/2014 10:30:00 AM

The best-known turbellarians, which are flatworms, are the planarians, which range in size from microscopic to several feet in length. They have an extensible pharynx in the middle of their underside with which they suck in food to their mouth. ...


09/02/2014 16:23:00 PM

The phylum Platyhelminthes includes all the species of flatworms. They are what most biologists consider to be the simplest and probably the most primitive bilaterally symmetrical animals. They are of great scientific interest because of their ...