Perfume (Latin "perfume" meaning"through smoke") washighly favored by theEgyptians, Romans, andArabs. In East Asia,perfumes were incensebased. People used tomake perfumes fromspices and herbs likebergamot, myrtle,coriander, conifer resin,and almond. The use offlowers came only afterAvicenna, an Iraniandoctor and chemistshowed the process ofdistillation, whereby oilscould be extracted fromflowers. In 1370, at thebehest of QueenElizabeth of Hungary,the world's firstmodern perfume -"Hungary Water" wasmade by blendingscented oils in alcoholsolution.The composition of aperfume is of vitalsignificance and ishandled by an expertknown as a perfumer,who deals with primaryscents like rose,jasmine, cola, etc;modifiers like esters;blenders like linalool andhydroxycitronellol; andfixatives like resins,wood scents, andamber bases. Theresulting scent isexplained in a musicalmetaphor of three'notes', namely, topnotes (consisting offast evaporating smallsize molecules) likecitrus and gingerscents; middle notes(consisting of slowevaporating mediumsize molecules) likelavender and rosescents; and base notes(consisting of slowestevaporating largest sizemolecules) like fixativesetc. All these noteswork together like amusical chord.Perfume oils containvolatile compounds inhigh concentrations andthus have to be dilutedby solvents, so thatinjury is not causedwhen applied directly onskin or clothes. Thecommon solvent is pureethanol or ethanolmixed with water.Fractionated coconut oilor wax, neutral smellingfats such as jojoba, canalso act as solvents anddilute the perfume oil.The perfume oil isfurther mixed withother aromaticcompounds. Generally,the percentage ofaromatic compounds inperfume extract is 20%to 40%; in eau deparfum is 10% to 30%;in eau de toilette is 5%to 20%; and in eau decologne is 2% to 5%.The oil concentration ina perfume along withother aromaticcompounds, determinesthe intensity, longevity,and price of theperfume and thus it is aclosely guarded secretof every perfumer andperfume house. Byadjusting thepercentage level andthe notes of theperfume, variations onthe same brand may becreated like Chanel'sPour Monsieur and PourMonsieur Concentree.Classification ofperfumes is nevercomplete, due to itsever-evolving nature.The traditionalclassification comprisesof categories like SingleFloral, Floral Bouquet,Ambery, Woody,Leather, Chypre, andFougere; while themodern classificationcomprises of BrightFloral, Green, Oceanic/Ozone, Citrus/Fruity,and Gourmand. In 1983,Michael Edwards, aperfume consultant,created a newfragrance classification"The Fragrance Wheel",which classified andsub-grouped fivestandard families,namely Floral (Floral,Soft Floral, FloralOriental), Oriental (SoftOriental, Oriental,Woody Oriental), Woody(Wood, Mossy Woods,Dry Woods), Fougere(has fragranceelements from all thefamilies), and Fresh(Citrus, Green, Water).Perfumery has used anumber of aromaticsources like plants,animals, and syntheticsources in the makingof perfumes. Plants areused as a source ofaroma compounds andessential oils. The partsof plants that are usedare:1 - Bark (cinnamon,cascarilla);2 - Flowers (rose,jasmine, osmanthus,tuberose, mimosa,vanilla);3 - Blossoms (citrus,ylang-ylang, clove);4 - Fruits (apples,strawberries, cherries,litsea cubeba, juniperberry, vanilla, oranges,lemons, limes,grapefruit);5 - Leaves and Twigs(lavender, patchouli,citrus, violets, sage,rosemary, hay,tomato);6 - Resins (labdanum,myrrh, gum benzoin,Peru balsam,frankincense/olibanum,pine, fir, amber, copal);7 - Roots, Bulbs, andRhizomes (vetiverroots, ginger and irisrhizomes);8 - Seeds (coriander,cocoa, mace,cardamom, anise,nutmeg, caraway,tonka bean);9 - Woods (agarwood,birch, rosewood,sandalwood, pine, birch,juniper, cedar).If you like this, why can't u share it with your friends.
read more: Hidden facts you need to know about the composition of perfumes and how it is being made